Only for those who are interested in the research behind Daybreak. It's long.
Sigurd - Legendary hero of the Völsung Saga in Norse mythology. He is also Siegfried of the German Nibelungenlied. In Daybreak, Kannon also called him Perun (the Slavic God of Thunder), Taranis (Celtic God of Thunder), Perkūnas (Romuva/Baltic God of Thunder), and Thor (Norse God of Thunder). Ironically, Sigurd/Siegfried is most well known for his slaying of a dragon (Fafnir), gaining invincibility by bathing in its blood. In Hyperion lore and Skagen history, Stormlord Sigurd aided Fafnir the Lightning Dragon to defeat a demon lord during the Demonic Invasion. Impressed by the display of courage, the dying dragon bestowed his remaining strength to Sigurd, making him the first human to gain the dragonlords' power.
Sigurd's description of God's plans -- collecting brave souls to fight an unwinnable battle -- is meant to parallel Ragnarok, the Norse 'end-of-the-world' scenario which roughly means "Twilight of the Gods".
Kannon - Better known as Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of compassion and mercy in East Asian Buddhism. Generally recognized as a savior, she is known for her unconditional love and compassion, protection of the downtrodden and helpless, and many other things. In Chinese mythology, her undaunted power is considered second only to Buddha, superior to even the Jade Emperor (ruler of Heaven). There is one legend where she descended to a Hell-like realm and witnessed the suffering of those trapped there firsthand. In her compassion, she released all the good karma accumulated through many lifetimes, thus freeing the suffering souls back to Heaven and Earth, and in the process, transformed hell into a paradise. Thus the ruler of hell had to send her away to prevent the utter destruction of his realm.
Eightfold Path - the principal teachings of Buddha, described as the way to cease mortal suffering in the reincarnation cycle and reach enlightenment.
Peter - Refers to Saint Peter, one of the Twelve Apostle of Jesus Christ, founder of the Church of Antioch and the Church of Rome, thus considered the First Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. 'Peter's 'mass conscription' approach' refers to the fact that according to the bible, all true Christians who accepts Jesus into their heart will go to heaven.
Gautama - Refers to the Siddhārtha Gautama, who became the Buddha (meaning 'enlightened being', not 'God' as many Westerners believe) after his enlightenment.
Gwendolyn - Legendary Queen of Britain who married Locrinus, King of the Britons. But when Locrinus divorced her in favor of a Germanic mistress, she built up an army and bested her ex-husband in battle to seize the throne. She proved to be a just ruler until abdicating in favor of her son, and her name was evoked in later times as an inspiration figure for future queens (especially Elizabeth I).
Worldwalkers - Inspired by the Mahayana Buddhist belief that all Buddhas journey to countless world systems to teach the path to enlightenment.
"The US doesn't need allies, only vassals," -- this really is a quote by Vladimir Putin. Although to be fair, these words describes every major world power, not just the US.
Promises to Gorbachev -- when Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev sought to end the Cold War and reform the USSR into a social democracy (he failed spectacularly), he received a verbal, 'Gentlemen's Agreement' from the US-led western powers that NATO would never move further east than the borders of Germany. Clearly this did not happen, as the organization created to oppose Russia pushed closer and closer towards its doorstep. The Russians would eventually yell "enough is enough", contributing to the 2014 conflict in Ukraine (War in Donbass).
"Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun" -- Chinese Revolutionary Leader Mao Zedong, probably the most controversial figure of the 20th Century. His reputation is a case example of facts buried beneath raging seas of clashing propaganda, both eastern and western. But regardless of what individuals may think about him (*cough* backstabbing @#$hole *cough*), one historical fact shines clear: the man is a visionary -- one immortalized by his refusal to 'play by the rules'. His strategic redirection during the Communists' Long March is actually what inspired the ending of Chapter Two.
"Logistics is...the ball and chain of warfare" -- Based on the quote 'Logistics is the ball and chain of armored warfare' by Wehrmacht General Heinz Guderian, Father of the Blitzkrieg. The original quote also highlights that the more modernized an army is (mechanization = armored combat vehicles, air support, etc), the more it relies upon having excellent logistics and therefore also more disastrously affected by supply shortages. Thousands of years ago, an army only worried about running out of food; today, hundreds of non-combat factor may stop a modern main battle tank dead in its tracks.
Albigese Doctrines -- Oh those beliefs were real. Everything written is based on the historical Catholic Heresy of Catharism. Unlike many other pre-Reformation heresies, the Cathars were surprisingly popular and achieved regional dominance before they were militarily suppressed in the Albigensian Crusade -- which ended up being more motivated by French desire to conquer the 'County of Toulouse' (more like a small kingdom) than due to religion, which was just another convenient excuse to go to war. Hurray for humanity.
"The Weichsel army always attacks" -- based on the motto of Frederick the Great of Prussia: "the Prussian army always attacks."
Kriegspiel -- literally means 'wargame'. As expected of professionals, the early versions were extremely complicated, including mechanics for fog of war, logistics, and communication difficulties. The initial 'strict' version proved unpopular with the officer corps, so a lenient, 'free' kriegspiel version was created to promote its widespread adoption (so they would 'train' themselves as a hobby). This new version dedicated many of the rules to a military expert gamemaster, which paved the way for its evolution into modern tabletop gaming.
Dutch East India Company -- founded in 1602, it was the first joint-stock company to have a capital stock that was continuously traded, hence why I called it the first that met modern conceptions of 'stock'. I should note that the Dutch East India Company also committed genocide in Java, Indonesia; so while capitalism has its uses, don't embrace it too hard.
Arsenal of Faith -- this chapter was inspired by Franklin D. Roosevelt's Arsenal of Democracy speech, one of the greatest persuasive speeches of mankind that would alter history.
Walther von Mackensen -- named after the famous Prussian and German Field Marshal whose long life spanned over six eras of German history. Apart from his famous hat and fearsome battlefield reputation, August von Mackensen was known to have defended the honor of the German Army to his dying breath. During WWII, the retired, 90 year old Marshal wrote to the German high command, criticizing its perpetrated atrocities and that "the honour of the Army and the esteem in which it is held must not be jeopardized by the actions of hired subhumans and criminals," which in a twist of irony referred to the Nazis.
Carolean Army -- The armies of Swedish Kings Charles XI and XII. They were considered the best troops in Europe until after their defeat in the Great Northern War by overwhelming Russian numerical superiority. One of the key points of the Carolean army was that its infantry carried rapiers, swords, and pikes, because battlefield experiences taught them that bayonets simply didn't match up in a chaotic, close-quarters infantry melee once formations interpenetrated. Due to the slow reload and inaccuracy of firearms, they were trained to fire a single musket volley before charging in with cold steel.
Percussion Cap -- Introduced in 1820, the percussion cap was the foundation technology that allowed for the development of brass cartridges (modern bullets) and breechloaders.
Tube Mortar -- The Stokes Mortar, invented in 1915, was the first mortar that was light enough to be transported by a single individual. Before that mortars were cumbersome pieces good only for siegeworks.
Sidhe, Tylwyth, Book of Invasions -- Sidhe is the Scottish name for a supernatural race of Gaelic mythology. They are best described in the mythological history of Ireland 'Lebor Gabála Érenn', also known as the Book of Invasions. Their existence overlaps with the Tuatha Dé Danann, deified ancestors in Irish mythology. In Wales, they correspond with the 'Tylwyth Teg', probably as a result of cultural cross-pollination. Over the centuries, the Sidhe became generalized as yet another category of faeries, albeit more powerful than most as they originate from the Otherworld.
Faerie Rings, Crossroads, Pathways -- In faerie lore, it is believed that there are countless points where the boundaries between our world and the otherworld overlap, allowing for a variety of supernatural phenomenons from plane shifting to instantaneous transportation. These could come in many forms, from grass/mushroom/flower rings to druidic ritual sites like Britain's Stonehenge.
Old Faiths -- In addition to Britain's period of druidic paganism, 'Fairy Faith' is a thing; it's a set of beliefs, rituals, and practices observed in the old days by Scots, Welsh, and Irish who wish to appease the Sidhe and avoid angering them.
Seelie and Unseelie Courts -- The Seelie Court is also known as the 'Light Court'; often linked with the Spring and Summer seasons, these faeries tend to be lighthearted and mischievous. Meanwhile the Unseelie Court is considered the 'Dark Court'; popularly associated with the Autumn and Winter seasons, its fae are broody and somber. Despite popular misconceptions, faeries were never meant to be wholly good or wholly evil; the light faeries may be benevolent or vindictive, while the dark fae may be malevolent or respectful -- it all depends on the circumstances under which they encounter humans.
Cataliyan Caliphate -- Based on the late years of the Rashidun (meaning: Rightly Guided) Caliphate, the first Caliphate ruled by the successors of the Prophet Muhammad, combined with the Imperialist might of the Umayyad Caliphate, who established the fifth largest empire in history and pushed into Western Europe until the French stopped them at the Battle of Tours (arguably the greatest turning point in history because had the French not won, Western Europe would probably be Muslim today). Lastly, the 'Caliphate' will not be related to or reflect ISIS in any way; those scumbags are as much a disgrace to their religion as they are to humanity, much like Christians of the 4th Crusade.
Ghulams -- Ghulams were slave-soldiers of many Islamic Empires, including the Abbasid Caliphate, the Safavid and Afsharid Persians, and to a lesser extent the Ottoman and Mughal Empires. They follow a similar tradition as the more famous Ottoman Jannisaries and Egyptian Mamluks. Purchased as young slaves, Ghulams were put through years of draconian training which gave them inhuman determination and courage. Upon becoming fully fledged soldiers, they were often given their freedom (either immediately or after some time of proven service) and could even acquire significant rank/power despite their humble beginnings. This provided incentive for the slave-soldiers to faithfully serve their masters and actually made the system work in many empires, unlike the silly, idiotic versions that you see in say, Game of Thrones (the Unsullied).
Tauheed -- If you haven't figured out from the blatant coloring and the word 'Caliphate', they are Hyperion's equivalent of Islam. Tauheed is derived from the Arabic word Tawhid, which means 'Oneness of God'. I used this to identify them because it sharply contrasts with the Christian concept of Trinity, after which the Trinitians are named.
Asawira -- Mounted archery was not initially used by the Islamic Caliphates, until they defeated the Sassanid Empire, heirs of the Persian/Parthian Empire who made the Parthian Shot famous. The Asawira were Persian-Iranian cavalrymen, especially noble cavalry, who brought mounted archery to the ranks of the Rashidun Caliphate. Unlike their nomadic counterparts, the Persian horse-archers (like their Byzantine brethren) actually wore good armor.
Shooting Circle -- Better known as the 'Cantabrian Circle', this is a mobile formation where mounted archers form a single-file, revolving circle which unleashed a continuous stream of projectiles upon their target. The constant motion of this formation and its hollow center made it hard to target by opposing archers, making it an effective tactic for mounted archers (who used smaller bows) to fight foot archers.
Durandal -- named after the sword of Roland, Charlemagne's most famous Paladin; it means "to endure".
Mubarizun -- Literally 'duelists', they are a special unit of elite troops in the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate (the first one). As battles in ancient warfare often began with individual duels while both armies watched, these men were trained specifically to duel opposing leaders/champions in order to sap their morale. But of course, this tactic isn't going to work against Rhin-Lotharingie's Oriflamme Paladins who are individually superior, so I used them to beef up the cavalry attack and take advantage of their quantitative edge.
'There is no deity but God for God is greater!' -- A combination of the Arabic phrases "La ilaha illallah" (There is no god but Allah) and "Allahu Akbar" (Allah is Greater [than whatever god you believe in]). There is a lot of contention on whether 'Allah' means 'God'; and my answer to this is: it depends. Does the culture have another word for God? In Arabic, yes. But not all Muslims are Arabic, and some of these cultures have no linguistic basis for god until Allah was introduced to them (and therefore Allah = God). Besides, if the Christian god can be called 'God', why can't the Islamic one? We shall share in the vanity that our God is the one and only truth while every other culture is wrong (sigh).
Bipolar Disorder -- Bipolar disorder classifications are currently separated into Bipolar I, Bipolar II, Cyclothymia, and Bipolar NOS (Not Otherwise Specified), roughly in order of decreasing intensity. Sylviane's state is closest to Cyclothymia: a chronic but mild form of bipolarity characterized by numerous mood swings and periods of hypomania that do not meet the criteria for a full episode (defined by DSM-IV as lasting at least four days with three or more symptoms).
Jinn -- A race in Islamic mythology, often described as humanoid creatures of smokeless flame taken physical shape. They inhabit an unseen, parallel(?) world separate from humanity, but could coexist and even marry humans. Islamic texts describe the Jinn, humans, and angels as the three sapient creation of Allah, and like humans, the Jinn also have the free will to choose between good and evil. The Jinn are divided into multiple kinds, with the Ifrits and Marid being two of the more powerful varieties; although exact differences between them are unclear. (Researching this has proven very problematic as fairy tales of Genies and D&D-inspired fantasy Djinn monsters have completely twisted the modern image of them)
Baha ad-Din Salim ibn Ziyad -- named after Baha ad-Din ibn Shaddad, renowned Kurdish historian who served as scholar and jurist to Saladin; and Tariq ibn Ziyad, the Muslim slave-turned-general who spearheaded the conquest of Iberia.
'There is no deity but God' -- the Arabic phrase "La ilaha illallah, Muhammadur Rasulu-llah" (There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah) is a testimonial phrase of Islam, which declared one's belief in the oneness of God and acceptance of Muhammad as God's Prophet. The encounter between Major Hamid and General Salim is based on the tale of Usama ibn Zayd, whom the Prophet Muhammad berated for killing another in combat despite claiming the testimonial phase.
Holy Month of Revelation -- Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calender, celebrates the first revelation of the Koran to the Prophet Muhammad. During this month, Muslims are to refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, or sexual relations from sunrise to sunset; instead spending the time spiritually refining themselves through prayer and alms giving.
"Kindness is a mark of faith, and whoever has not kindness has not faith." -- quote attributed to the Prophet of Islam.
"...exciting her happiness nerves" -- Sir Robert is talking about endorphins (endogenous morphin), a chemical produced by the body's central nervous system. It was not discovered in our time until 1974, so there's no way Hyperion biomedicine would have isolated this. However its effects, a joyful drug-like high, has been studied for a long time. It's best known occurrences come as a response to sexual stimulation and muscle fatigue (Runner's High).
Almace -- named after the sword of Turpin, Archbishop of Reims, who fell alongside Roland the Paladin in the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. It means 'Almighty', and is supposedly a sister sword to Courtain (Curtana), Durandal, and Joyeuse.
'Silver star and gray dagger placed atop steel kite shield' - the Samaran Shadow Guard's emblem is based on the KGB crest.
Olifant -- named after Roland the Paladin's horn. In the Song of Roland, he blows it during the Battle of Roncevaux to call for aid, but the force required bursts his temple.
Old Russian poem about Rzhev - by Russian poet Alexandr Tvardovsky. Probably one of the saddest war poems in history which describes the futility and hopes of 300,000-400,000 who died during the inconclusive Rzhev Meat Grinder (WW2). See the full poem here.
Ghazi - a very generic term in Islam that simply means one who participates in religious warfare. Its use vary from time to time. During the expansionist phase the Ghazi were often simple, irregular troops who clashed against the enemy's local armies/militias. Later on the word became a title, bestowed upon zealots who war for Islam.
Wunderwaffe -- German for 'wonder weapon', a term used by the Nazi propaganda ministry to describe many revolutionary new weapons that would supposedly help Germany turn the tide against the Allies in late WW2.
"Not a step back!" -- Soviet motto for Stalin's infamous Order 227, which forbade Russian commanders to retreat without expressed permission from high command on pain of death. It also created 'penal battalions' for officers who failed to adequately perform their duty, as well as establish 'blocking detachments' to stop desertion by shooting at them (although not surprisingly, this actually proved demoralizing to the troops, and was thus abolished in just 3 months). Thanks to the Cold War, this order has attained a notorious reputation, with western media portraying it as a prime example of Soviet 'barbarism', while in reality many Eastern Front historians, officers, and soldiers alike consider it one of the most inspiring documents of the Great Patriotic War.
Testudo -- Roman Legionary formation meaning "tortoise", where the men would close ranks to form a wall of shields to their front and top.
Farah and her Mubarizuns -- this isn't just me trying to put women into combat. The Crimson Dervish is inspired by two sources: the Dervish sufi order, mostly known for their repetitive spinning dance but left quite a few martial legends thanks to the Somali Dervish State who repeated repulsed British invasions; the other being the elite Gbetos of Dahomey - thousands of warrior women who fought at the vanguard of "Black Sparta" and impressed European troops with their bravery.
Courtain -- named after the sword of Ogier the Dane (one of Charlemagne's Paladins). Also known as the Sword of Mercy and Curtana, the ceremonial sword of the British Monarchy.
Empire of Rhin-Lotharingie -- though the French influence is noticeable, by the Empire is actually much more complicated. One of the biggest considerations in the Daybreak setting is that if (some) people could live up to 200 years, how would that affect cultural spreading? Well, Rhin-Lotharingie is a ''Celtic Carolingian Empire'' (i.e. Charlemagne's French-dominated Holy Roman Empire, except with the Gauls never being fully integrated into Roman/Latin cultural sphere). Thus, while there are strong modern French similarities -- especially in names because I'm no linguist and prefers name dictionaries -- they're also... not really French. The Empire's vassal kingdoms reflect this as three of the four are modern celtic nations:
- Kingdom of Gleann Mòr - Scotland.
- Kingdom of Ceredigion - Wales.
- Kingdom of Avorica - Brittany.
- Kingdom of Garona - Occitania, particularly the oversized County of Toulouse.